Calcium orotate is a mineral salt that is normally found in small
amounts in all living things. Each molecule of calcium orotate consists
of two molecules of orotic acid in which a single calcium atom replaces
a pair of hydrogen atoms (one from each orotic acid molecule).
Orotate (orotic acid) is a biochemical substance made by all cells. It is a necessary raw material for making the genetic
substances RNA and DNA.4
The cobalamins are made only by microorganisms, not by plants
or animals. This means that animals must obtain them either
from their diet or from microorganisms living in their bodies.
For example, cows get their vitamin B12 from gut-dwelling bacteria.
Since the cobalamins are stored in animal cells, carnivores can
get their vitamin B12 by eating meat, even though they don’t
themselves have B12-producing gut-dwelling bacteria. Herbivores
that lack B12-producing bacteria (such as human vegetarians
or pet animals) will develop B12 deficiencies unless they use
some kind of B12 supplement. In fact, it has been found that
around 60-70% of vegetarians have vitamin B12 deficiencies! Left untreated, such deficiencies will eventually do permanent damage to the body.